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Virtual Naval Hospital

Medical Management of Biological Casualties Handbook

Appendix B: Patient Isolation Precautions

U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases,Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


Standard Precautions

Handwashing after patient contact.

Use of gloves when touching blood, body fluids, secretions, excretions and contaminated items.

Use of mask, eye protection, and gown during procedures likely to generate splashes or sprays of blood, body fluids, secretions or excretions

Handle contaminated patient-care equipment and linen in a manner that prevents the transfer of microorganisms to people or equipment.

Practice care when handling sharps and use a mouthpiece or other ventilation device as an alternative to mouth-to-mouth resuscitation when practical.

Place the patient in a private room when feasible if they may contaminate the environment.

Airborne Precautions

Standard Precautions plus:

Place the patient in a private room that has negative air pressure, at least six air changes/hour, and appropriate filtration of air before it is discharged from the room.

Use of respiratory protection when entering the room.

Limit movement and transport of the patient. Use a mask on the patient if they need to be moved.

Droplet Precautions

Standard Precaution plus:

Place the patient in a private room or with someone with the same infection. If not feasible, maintain at least 3 feet between patients.

Use of a mask when working within 3 feet of the patient.

Limit movement and transport of the patient. Use a mask on the patient if they need to be moved.

Contact Precautions

Standard Precautions plus:

Place the patient in a private room or with someone with the same infection if possible.

Use of gloves when entering the room. Change gloves after contact with infective material.

Use of gown when entering the room if contact with patient is anticipated or if the patient has diarrhea, a colostomy or wound drainage not covered by a dressing.

Limit the movement or transport of the patient from the room.

Ensure that patient-care items, bedside equipment, and frequently touched surfaces receive daily cleaning.

Dedicate use of noncritical patient-care equipment to a single patient, or cohort of patients with the same pathogen. If not feasible, adequate disinfection between patients is necessary.

 

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